Fever Seizures in Toddlers: Characteristics, Causes, Treatment

Seizures in babies can certainly make parents panic. Seizures in infants, whether accompanied by fever or not, can have a fatal impact. Febrile seizures in toddlers can be dangerous if it's too late to get help. That is why, after giving first aid, take your child to the hospital immediately so that the febrile seizures in the toddler soon subside.

//Fever Seizures in Toddlers 

Seizures themselves occur due to excessive muscle contraction at certain times without being able to be controlled. One of the causes of febrile seizures in toddlers is the high temperature of the child's body. The occurrence of seizures in infants or in children accompanied by fever is termed as febrile seizures (convulsions febrillis) or stroke/step.

Febrile seizures in toddlers are indeed not a rare thing, considering the causes of febrile seizures in children can vary. The problem is that each child's tolerance for fever is very varied.

In children with low tolerance, fever at body temperature of 38 ° C can also make its seizure. While in children whose tolerance is normal, febrile seizures in these children are only experienced if the body temperature has reached 39 ° C or more. Apart from that, febrile seizures in toddlers still need to get treatment as soon as possible.

//How to Overcome Fever Seizures in Toddlers

To prevent things that are not desirable because of febrile seizures in toddlers or seizures in infants, it is recommended that parents as soon as possible give first aid as soon as they know there is a febrile seizure in toddlers or seizures in this baby.

After that, don't wait for more time to take your child to the nearest doctor or clinic. Don't just fix it on the length of febrile seizures in the toddler, whether it's only a few seconds or a few minutes. That way, your little one will get proper further handling from the experts.

Usually, the doctor will also provide child seizure medication, in the form of febrifuge, as well as providing step medication. "As a first aid, there is no need to bring it directly to a complete hospital which is located relatively further because it is possible that the little one gets a more dangerous risk due to the slow getting first aid."

In addition, if a febrile seizure in a toddler does not immediately get proper treatment, the child is threatened with mental retardation. Because febrile seizures in toddlers can cause damage to children's brain cells.

So, if a febrile seizure in a toddler lasts for a long time, then the chances are that even more, damaged cells will occur. It is not impossible that the level of intelligence of children will decline dramatically and can no longer develop optimally.

Even some cases of febrile seizures in infants or seizures in infants can cause epilepsy in children. No less important, once the child has a febrile seizure, the parents should be extra careful. Because in the first year after the event, febrile seizures in children who are similar or even more severe are likely to recur, as are seizures in infants younger than one year old.

To anticipate it, you can provide seizure medication to children at home. Provide febrifuge and anticonvulsant drugs that have been prescribed by pediatricians in anticipation of febrile seizures in infants that can occur suddenly. Seizure medication in these children should be given in non-excessive doses. Do not use seizure drugs in children without a prescription, especially in excessive doses.

Even so, parents don't worry too much. Because with proper and immediate treatment, especially with the provision of drug seizures in the right child, febrile seizures in toddlers that last a few moments generally do not cause brain function disorders.

//Characteristics of Fever Seizures in Children

How to deal with the step in a child or febrile seizures in children, of course, must be known in advance the cause of seizures in these children. In addition to knowing the causes of seizures in these children, you also need to know the characteristics of seizures. Of course, in this case, parents should be able to read the characteristics of a child who has a febrile seizure, including:
  • Both hands and feet are stiff with strong shock movements and convulsions for 5 minutes
  • The eyeball turns up
  • Clenched teeth
  • Gag
  • Not infrequently the child stops breathing for a moment
  • In some cases, it cannot control the expenditure of defecation
  • In severe cases, cases of febrile seizures in toddlers can make your child often unconscious. The intensity of seizure time also varies greatly, from a few seconds to tens of minutes.

//Causes of Fever Seizures in Children - How to Overcome Seizures in Children

The cause of febrile seizures in children is usually because the body temperature is too high. Here are some explanations about febrile seizures in children. A child's normal body temperature ranges from 36-37 ° C. The child has a fever if his body temperature measured by mouth or ear shows a rate of 37.8 ° C; through the rectum 38 ° C, and 37.2 ° C through the armpit.

Before getting taller, immediately give febrifuge to avoid febrile seizures in toddlers or in these children. This is a way to deal with seizures in children as first aid.

How to deal with seizures in children cannot be done carelessly. Parents should not be so easy to say a child has a fever or not just by attaching the back of his hand to the child's forehead. This method is clearly inaccurate because it is greatly influenced by the sensitivity and temperature of the parent's own body.

Mercury thermometers are believed to be the most appropriate way to measure body temperature. Measurement of body temperature will be more accurate if the thermometer is placed in the oral cavity or rectum or anus compared to the armpit.

When faced with febrile seizures in toddlers, wherever possible try to be calm. How to deal with seizures in children will work if parents do not panic. Panic attitude will only make us not know what to do that might make the child's suffering worse.

You certainly don't want febrile seizures in toddlers or febrile seizures in these children to get worse. So, one of the most important ways to deal with step in children is not to panic.

Febrile seizures in infants are due to high body temperature. However, do not use alcohol or cold water to reduce the body temperature of a child who has a fever. The use of alcohol is very likely to cause eye irritation and intoxication/poisoning.

It's safer to use an ordinary water compress placed on your forehead, armpits, and folds of thighs. This compress aims to reduce the temperature on the body surface. This decrease in temperature is expected to occur because body heat is used to evaporate water on compress cloth. The drastic drop in temperature is not recommended.

Do not try to give aspirin or other types of drugs that contain salicylates because it is thought to trigger Reye's syndrome, a type of disease that is relatively rare and affects the work of the liver, blood, and brain.

After the child is fully aware, persuade him to drink a lot and eat fruit or fruit foods that contain lots of water. Can be juice, milk, tea, and other drinks. Thus, body fluids that evaporate due to high temperatures can be quickly replaced.

Don't cover your child with a thick blanket. Blankets and thick and closed clothes will actually increase body temperature and prevent evaporation. Tight clothes or tight ties should be removed.

//The way parents should do it when the child steps

There are a number of things parents can do when a child experiences a step. The methods below must be done immediately before the child's condition becomes more severe:
  • Immediately give febrifuge so the child's body temperature exceeds 37.5 ° C.
  • Compress with a warm cloth (the temperature is more or less the same as your child's body temperature). Do not compress with cold water, because it can cause a "short circuit" / a strong impact on the brain between the temperature of the child's body heat with the cold compress earlier.
  • So that your child is not injured, move hard or sharp objects that are near the child. No need to hold your baby's mouth to keep it open by blocking/biting something between his teeth. Tilt your baby's body position so that the patient does not swallow his own vomiting fluid which can interfere with his breathing.
  • Do not give drinks/food immediately after stopping the seizure because it will only have the chance to make the child choke.

/Seizures in Infants or Toddlers Without Accompanied by Fever

One way to overcome the step in children is to explore the cause. Causes of seizures in infants or seizures in children vary. The important thing is not to repeat and last longer because it can damage brain cells. According to Dr. Merry C. Siboro, Sp.A, from Metro Medical Center Hospital, Jakarta, seizures are excessive muscle contractions that are unwilling.

"Seizures may occur if the body temperature of the baby or child is too high or it could be without fever."

Seizures accompanied by a fever are called febrile seizures ( convulsions febrilis ). Usually caused by an illness in the body of the child. For example, high fever due to respiratory infections, inflammation of the ear, gastrointestinal infections, and urinary tract infections. While seizures without fever are seizures that are not accompanied by fever. It also occurs in many children.

/Seizures Can Be Experienced by All Children

General seizure conditions appear from the body that becomes stiff and the eyeball turns upward. This condition is commonly called step or tonic-clonic seizure. Seizures without fever can be experienced by all children under five. Even newborns.

Generally, because there are congenital abnormalities that interfere with brain function so that it can cause seizures. It could also be due to birth trauma, the presence of infections at the last moment of birth, a difficult birth process so that some oxygen does not enter the brain, or suffer from large or small heads.

Babies born with a weight above 4,000 grams can also be at risk of experiencing a fever without seizures during the neonatal period (28 days after birth).

"This is usually caused by a history of a mother suffering from diabetes so that her child experiences hypoglycemia (disturbance of sugar in the blood). Thus, not even fever, he can convulse. "

Furthermore, the baby with hypoglycemic disorders due to diabetes will be prone to seizures. "For example, just being given a drink late, he immediately had a seizure." Uniquely, premature babies actually rarely suffer from seizures. "The suffering is more than enough babies a month. Allegedly because the nervous system is perfect so it is more vulnerable than premature babies who are not perfect. "

/Don't Step Up Again!

It is important to note, if a child has a seizure, there is a possibility he can ambush. In fact, seizures should not be allowed to repeat, nor can they last for longer or more than 5 minutes. If it occurs it can endanger the child.

The problem is that every time a child has a seizure he experiences asphyxiation or lack of oxygen in the blood. "Every minute, seizures can cause damage to cells in the brain, because of the inhibition of oxygen flow to the brain.

Imagine what happens when a child goes back and forth between seizures, how many thousands of cells will be damaged? The absence of oxygen flow to the brain can cause some brain cells to be damaged.

"This damage in the brain can cause epilepsy, paralysis, even mental retardation. Therefore, in children who have had seizures or gifted seizures, parents should continue to monitor so that there are no recurrent seizures.

/Monitor for three years

The risk of recurrent seizures in children generally depends on the type of seizure and the presence or absence of neurological abnormalities based on EEG (electroencephalography) results. Among infants who experience neonatal seizures (without fever), seizures will occur without fever in the first 7 years in 25% of cases. Seventy-five percent of these seizures will become epilepsy.

It must be tried, within three years after the first seizure, do not have the following seizures.

The doctor will monitor for three years after the first seizure arrives. If there are no more seizures in three years, even if only for a few seconds, then the child has a good prognosis. That is, no neurological and mental abnormalities occur.

But, what if after being treated, it turns out that in the second year there is another seizure? "The calculation must start again from the first year. "Anyway, the time period considered safe for monitoring is for three years after the seizure.

So, for three years after the first seizure, the child must be free of seizures. Children who are seizure free for three years and after, generally will be well and recover. Except for children who do have birth defects, such as small heads (microcephaly) or large heads (macrocephaly), and if there are tumors in the brain.

/Types of Seizures in Children

"Seizures without fever can come from abnormalities in the brain, not from the brain, or hereditary factors," the translation is one by one like the following.
  • Neurological disorders of any disease or disorder that interferes with brain function can cause seizures. For example, due to birth trauma, head trauma, brain tumor, brain inflammation, bleeding in the brain, or lack of oxygen in brain tissue (hypoxia).
  • Non-neurological can be caused by electrolyte disturbances due to vomiting and diarrhea, low blood sugar due to prolonged illness, lack of food intake, long seizures caused by epilepsy, metabolic disorders, circulatory disorders, drug/chemical poisoning, allergies, and congenital defects.
  • The hereditary factors of seizures due to other diseases such as epilepsy usually originate from families who have a history of similar febrile seizures. Parents who have experienced seizures as a child should be cautious because their children are at high risk of experiencing the same seizures.

/Beware of Seizures in Infants Under 6 Months

Parents should be vigilant if children often have seizures without fever, especially under the age of 6 months, because of the possibility of suffering from major epilepsy.

The problem is, stepchildren under 6 months, especially in the neonatal period are characteristic. "It's not just like the toniclonics that we have known, but also in the form of other movements. For example, his eyes squint up then move, his lips twitch or his hands like a tremor.

Doctors are usually vigilant, but if the seizures occur at home, it is usually rare for the mother to be upset. "That is why parents must pay close attention to the condition of the baby.

/Ways to Overcome Step in Children

Here are some of the ways parents will do when the child experiences a step:
  1. Don't panic, immediately loosen your clothes and remove or discard everything that blocks the respiratory tract. So if you are eating suddenly your child has a seizure, or something in his mouth during a seizure, immediately remove it.
  2. Tilt the child's body because generally, a child who is having a seizure secretes fluids from his mouth. "This is actually a lot of salivae because the nerves that regulate the salivary glands are out of control. If you are having a seizure, the central nerve is disturbed. Not only saliva, but tears can also come out. "To tilt the body so that these fluids come out immediately, do not settle in the mouth which actually risks clogging the airways and aggravating the situation.
  3.  Do not easily believe that drinking coffee in a child who is having a seizure can immediately stop the seizure. "Medically, coffee is not useful for dealing with seizures. Coffee can actually cause respiratory congestion when given when the child has a seizure, which can actually cause death. "
  4. Immediately bring the child to the nearest hospital, do not let the brain do not get oxygen forever. "Try to convulse for no more than three minutes. Prepare an anticonvulsant medication that your doctor recommends if your child has ever had a seizure or has a history of seizures. "


Management of seizures in infants or in children includes:

1. Handling during seizures

Stopping seizures: Diazepam initial dose 0.3-0.5 mg / kgBB / dose IV (intravenous injection) (slowly) or 0.4-0.6mg / KgBB / dose REKTAL SUPPOSITORY. If the seizure cannot be overcome, it can be repeated at the same dose 20 minutes later.

• Lower fever:

o Anti Piretika: Paracetamol 10 mg / KgBB / dose PO (by mouth / by mouth) given 3-4 times a day.
o Compress temperature> 39ºC with warm water, temperature> 38ºC with plain water.

• Treatment of causes: Antibiotics are given as indicated by the underlying disease.
• Handling other sportsmanship includes: Freeing the airway, giving oxygen, providing water and electrolyte balance, consider blood pressure balance.

2. Prevention of febrile seizures in toddlers

Periodic (intermittent) prevention of febrile seizures in simple toddlers with Diazepam 0.3 mg / KgBB / PO dose (Per Oral / by mouth) and antipyretics when the child has a disease accompanied by fever. Continuous prevention of complications of complications with valproic acid 15-40 mg / KgBB / dose of PO (orally / by mouth) is divided into 2-3 doses.

/Epilepsy Children Must Control Every 3 Months

Those who are at risk of suffering from epilepsy are children born to families who have a history of epilepsy. In addition, children with neurological disorders before the first seizure come, either with or without fever.

Children who often have seizures have the potential to suffer from epilepsy. But don't worry, children who suffer from epilepsy, except those born with abnormalities or growth disorders, can grow and develop like other children. Their learning achievements are not inferior to normal children.

So, we do not need to exclude epilepsy children because they can develop normally like other children. "The important thing is that it is handled well. Usually, if the child often has a seizure, the doctor will give a medication that can keep it so that it doesn't cramp up again.

In epileptic children, the focus of treatment is not to have a seizure. For that, it needs control, at least every 3 months so that monitoring from the doctor continues. "